The History Of The Resolute Desk

By Pamela Upshur

The Resolute desk was made in the 19th Century and built using timbers that came from the British ship. The British barque-rigged ship Resolute became stuck in the Arctic ice and was abandoned by its crew in 1854. An American whaling ship found it the next year and brought it to Connecticut. Congress rescued and restored the ship which was then given to Queen Victoria as a token of peace and goodwill.

When the ship was decommissioned in 1879.. The British government arranged to have a desk made from its timber. The desk was built by William Evendan, a skilled joiner employed in Chatham, England. The Queen presented the richly carved “Resolute desk” to President Rutherford B. Hayes in 1880 as a gift. Every president since Rutherford B. Hayes has used the desk in the White House Oval Office since except Lyndon B. Johnson, Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford and George H. W. Bush.

Independent museums also display replicas of the Resolute desk including a full-scale replica of the Oval Office at the American Village in Montevallo, Alabama, the Quality West Wing Foundation Museum in Corona, CA, the Treehouse Children’s Museum in Ogden, Utah, and the American Presidential Museum in Branson, Missouri.

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Five presidential libraries display exact replicas of the Resolute desk including the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library in Simi Vally, California, the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum in Atlanta, Georgia, the George and Barbara Bush Center at the University of New England, Maine, and the William J. Clinton Presidential Center and Park in Little Rock, Arkansas.

The desk has twice been modified since 1880. President Franklin D. Roosevelt order a hinged front panel in order to hide his wheelchair. He often placed a waste basket in front of his desks. He preferred people not see his leg braces. The hinged front panel was commissioned in 1944, but was not delivered until 1945 after Rooselvelt’s dealth. The desk originally had a space in the center called a knee hole. President Roosevelt had the knee hold fitted with the panel with the Seal of the President carved on it. President Roosevelt didn’t live long enough to see the modification. President Truman liked it decided to have the hinged panel installed anyway.

The second modification was made during the Ronald Reagan Administration. President Reagan brought a chair he used from the capital in California. President Reagan knees bumped into the desk whenever he moved. A separate, uniform base was added to the desk to accommodate Reagan and his chair.

Ms John F. Kennedy had the height of Resolute Desk increased by adding approximately 4 inches to the base to adjust it to President Kennedy’s height. She also had it sanded and refinished.

If you compare the photographrs of John F. Kennedy, Jr. under the desk, and the photograph of President Eisenhower in the Broadcast Room, you can see a difference in the height of the desk.

Presently, the desk has been in the Oval Office for the past 16 years. The Resolute Desk is an important part of history and is still used today by President President Obama.

About the Author: David Newton is the owner of Antique Replica Furniture. Antique Replica Furniture specializes in hand-carved mahogany replicas of English Antiques in Chippendale, Hepplewhite, Regency, Queen Anne and english Victorian styles furniture. To learn more, visit:

Resolute Desks.


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14 April

Category:Science and technology

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  • 7 April 2021: NASA’s helicopter Ingenuity survives its first night at Mars
  • 25 December 2020: ‘Earth-based life can survive in hydrogen-rich atmospheres’: MIT professor Dr Seager tells Wikinews about her research on organisms thriving in oxygen-less environment
  • 18 December 2020: Gregory Kurtzer discusses plans for Rocky Linux with Wikinews as Red Hat announces moving focus away from CentOS
  • 14 December 2020: Red Hat to move focus away from CentOS in favour of Stream; CentOS team discuss implications with Wikinews
  • 26 October 2020: GitHub blocks public access to youtube-dl after RIAA issues DMCA notice
  • 31 July 2020: “Avast ye scurvy file sharers!”: Interview with Swedish Pirate Party leader Rickard Falkvinge
  • 7 July 2020: Astronomer Anthony Boccaletti discusses observation of birth of potential exoplanet with Wikinews
  • 30 June 2020: Open source game developer Perttu Ahola talks about Minetest with Wikinews
  • 28 June 2020: Neanderthals ‘knew what they were doing’: Archæologist Dr Naomi Martisius discusses her findings about Neanderthals’ behaviour with Wikinews
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13 April

Wikinews interviews 2020 Melbourne Lord Mayor Candidate Wayne Tseng

This article mentions the Wikimedia Foundation, one of its projects, or people related to it. Wikinews is a project of the Wikimedia Foundation.

Thursday, October 22, 2020

2020 Melbourne Lord Mayor candidate Wayne Tseng answered some questions about his campaign for the upcoming election from Wikinews. The Lord Mayor election in the Australian city is scheduled to take place this week.

Tseng runs a firm called eTranslate, which helps software developers to make the software available to the users. In the candidate’s questionnaire, Tseng said eTranslate had led to him working with all three tiers of the government. He previously belonged to the Australian Liberal Party, but has left since then, to run for mayorship as an independent candidate.

Tseng is of Chinese descent, having moved to Australia with his parents from Vietnam. Graduated in Brisbane, Tseng received his PhD in Melbourne and has been living in the city, he told Wikinews. Tseng also formed Chinese Precinct Chamber of Commerce, an organisation responsible for many “community bond building initiatives”, the Lord Mayor candidate told Wikinews.

Tseng discussed his plans for leading Melbourne, recovering from COVID-19, and “Democracy 2.0” to ensure concerns of minorities in the city were also heard. Tseng also focused on the importance of the multi-culture aspect and talked about making Melbourne the capital of the aboriginals. Tseng also explained why he thinks Melbourne is poised to be a world city by 2030.

Tseng’s deputy Lord Mayor candidate Gricol Yang is a Commercial Banker and works for ANZ Banking Group.

Currently, Sally Capp is the Lord Mayor of Melbourne, the Victorian capital. Capp was elected as an interim Lord Mayor in mid-2018 after the former Lord Mayor Robert Doyle resigned from his position after sexual assault allegations. Doyle served as the Lord Mayor of Melbourne for almost a decade since 2008.

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13 April

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13 April

How To Get Started With Sports Betting

Online sports betting is probably the best option for those who are interesting in trying it for the first time. If you have never tried online sports betting, you are missing so much fun and excitement, and it can all happen in the comfortable surroundings of your home! The art of sports betting can seem confusing at first, but once you are familiar with some of the jargon that is used to explain the concepts and logic behind each type of bet, it is all much easier to understand.

One of the best ways for you to experience this engaging way to bet on your favourite racing and sporting events is to get acquainted with online sports betting. However, in order to best take advantage of all that sports betting has to offer, you need to know a little more about it.

Sports Betting – The Odds

How does online sports betting work? You should start by studying the odds for the sporting event you are most interested in placing a wager upon. When using online sports betting, you can find these odds in the various online sports books used by Internet gamers everywhere. You must open an account with an online sports book before you can place your bet, but this is simple to do.

Once you have chosen where you are going to do your sports betting, you need to decide how you are going to place your bet. There are many different ways for you to wager your chosen amount of money, but first, let’s talk about the spread and how it can affect the amount you bet.

Sports Betting – The Spread

The spread is a point advantage in sports betting, which is usually given to the team that is generally expected to lose a particular sporting event. If you decide that you will bet on the team that is expected to win, they will have to win by more than the spread number and cover the spread before you are considered to have chosen correctly. If you choose the team that is expected to lose, that team will have to lose by less than the spread number in order for your pick to be considered correct. If by chance the team wins by the number of points that were chosen as the spread, the game is called a push.

No one who engages in sports betting wins a thing if a game is called as a push, but you do get the amount of your original bet back. The point spread is done in order to make the all of the bets come out even for the sports book, and is usually done for sports such as basketball or football.

Sports Betting – The Bet

If you were to bet against the spread, most likely you would place a type of bet called an 11-10, or spread bet. By betting $11, you win $10 if your team’s score covers the spread. This is another way that the online sports book makes its money.

An over-under bet is also an 11-10 bet. With this type of bet, the total score of the two teams that played will be either over or under the total score that was listed before the game was played. Betting on the score being over is called ‘betting on the ball’. Betting on the score being under is called ‘betting on the clock’.

A proposition bet is a type of bet where the online sports book chooses what the odds and the conditions of the bet are going to be. This type of bet can be most interesting, even a little fun at times, for the conditions can be as unusual as which of two football teams will make the most touchdowns, which of two basketball teams will score the most three pointers, or even which individual player will make a certain move for the team. The odds for this kind of bet are sometimes 11-10, but can be better or worse depending on the circumstances.

A parlay bet happens when you are betting on more than one event, usually three. This type of bet gives you a much higher payout if you should win, but the catch is that all the events you bet on will have to win. If even one of them loses, they all lose, and you lose the amount that you bet.

A money line bet seems rather formidable, especially to someone who is just getting into online sports betting, but it is really one of the simplest bets of all. It is also called a Straight Up bet, and there is no point spread to consider. You will just choose your sport, and then the team you think will be either the underdog or the favourite. In a money line bet, the sports book will have numbers listed that are in the hundreds, with either a plus or a minus sign beside them. These numbers are considered the ‘money line’, and are the multipliers for the bets.

If the money line for your team is listed as 100, you will make an even bet. This means you will wager the same amount that you will get back. If the money line reads -110, then you must come up with the amount of money you have decided to bet, plus 10%. This extra 10% is known by the name of ‘juice’. If the money line for your team is listed as +110, then you simply place your bet with the amount you choose to bet. If you win a money line bet, you get the amount of your bet plus 10% back. For example, if you bet $10.00 and $1.00 in juice on a -110 money line and it wins, you get $21. 00.

A teaser bet in sports betting is actually a proposition bet that allows you to change the odds for the bet in either direction so that the wager is in your favour. You can go up or down in points, and must choose at least two teams, as is done in a parlay bet. You can have as many as 6 separate teams included on a teaser bet, but all of the teams chosen have to win in order for your bet to be declared a winning one. Once the games are over, the points from the teaser bet are added or subtracted from the final scores. The odds for teaser bets can be different each time, so it is a good plan to always check the sports book before placing your bet.

A tip to remember is that generally, when placing a wager on any sport that can finish with a high score, such as football, you will have a spread. Sports where the ending score is low, such as in baseball will have a money line. Remember also that favourable odds on a game can sometimes work in your favour. Online sports betting allows you to easily go from sports book to sports book to find the best odds.

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12 April

Apple unveils iPod nano

Wednesday, September 7, 2005

Apple today unveiled its latest addition to the iPod line, the iPod nano. The announcement came today at a special music event hosted by Apple, held in the Moscone West Convention Center in San Francisco.

The iPod Nano comes in two colors, white and black, as well as two sizes, a 2GB and a 4GB, capable of holding 500 and 1,000 songs and will cost $199 and $249 USD respectively. The iPod nano is the second model of the iPod family to utilize flash memory, after the Shuffle was introduced in January.

The iPod nano replaces the similar iPod Mini in the iPod family. The iPod nano’s maximum capacity is 2GB smaller than that of the last version of the iPod Mini, which held 6GB for the same price of $249.

Apple also announced an iTunes-compatible cell phone, the Motorola ROKR E1, which will be available exclusively from Cingular Wireless in the United States, Virgin will be in the UK. The ROKR has a color display for viewing album art and features built-in stereo speakers, as well as stereo headphones that also serve as a mobile headset with microphone. Users can randomly autofill or manually fill the mobile phone with playlists of music, audiobooks and Podcasts from their iTunes library via a USB 1.1 connection. The Motorola ROKR pauses music automatically when users take a call and offers the ability to listen to music while messaging or taking a photo. It will cost $250 with a two-year cell service contract.

A new version of iTunes was also announced at the event, bringing it to version 5. Along with a new look, it also features a customizable randomization, improved search for the Library and Music Store, and greater parental controls on songs with explicit lyrics in the iTunes Music Store as well as controlling content of Podcasts.

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12 April

Arkansas becomes first US state to criminalise treatment for transgender minority

Friday, April 9, 2021

On Tuesday, lawmakers in the Republican-governed US state of Arkansas became the first in the country to ban specific treatment types to transgender youth under the age of eighteen, irrespective of parental consent. It is to become law at the earliest by the 91st day after the legislative session’s recess, or July 30.

While vetoed by the state’s governor Asa Hutchinson on Monday, House Bill 1570, or the Save Adolescents From Experimentation Act was overturned 25–8 in the state Senate and 72–25 in the House of Representatives, prohibiting any healthcare professional from providing puberty blockers, cross-sex hormone therapy or gender-affirming surgery to anyone under the age of eighteen, as well as referring them to other providers.

Representative for Arkansas’ District 87 Robin Lundsturm said “[t]hey need to get to be 18 before they make those decisions”.

This ban also applies to those minors who are already receiving such treatments. The punishment will be a loss of medical licence.

While praised by conservative organisations such as The Family Council, Governor Hutchinson called the bill “a product of the cultural war in America”. In a statement Governor Hutchinson said, “I do hope my veto will cause my Republican colleagues across the country to resist the temptation to put the state in the middle of every decision made by parents and health care professionals”.

The American Academy of Pediatrics, representing 67 thousand paediatricians nationwide accused the bill of depriving young people of the medical care they need. Medical director at the University of California San Francisco Madeline Deutsch said of transitioning treatment “[t]here’s a general consensus among professionals in this field” that “[t]here’s tons of solid science supporting this approach”, and division head of adolescent and young adult medicine at a children’s hospital in Chicago Dr Robert Garofalo called it as “perpetuat[ing] the very things we know are harmful to trans youth”.

Executive director of the Arkansas American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) Holly Dickson condemned the act’s proponents as “[disregarding] widespread, overwhelming, and bipartisan opposition to this bill and [continuing] their discriminatory crusade against trans youth […] to block trans youth from the care they need simply because of who they are is not only wrong, it’s also illegal, and we will be filing a lawsuit to challenge this law in court”. The institution is preparing for litigation; according to deputy director for transgender justice with the ACLU’s LGBTQ & HIV project Chase Strangio, “[w]e will always have your back and will be relentless in our defense of your rights.”

The bill’s passage comes after similar anti-transgender legislation in Arkansas and other states, including legislation signed by Hutchinson March 25 banning transgender girls and women from competing with their gender identity in sports, described by Dickson according to the AP as “discriminatory and shameful”.

After the lawmakers enacted this ban, pro-LGBTQ rights group the Human Rights Campaign said over 100 bills targeting transgender people have been filed, with bills of similar nature proposed in 20 states or more.

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11 April

Nigeria’s cabinet dissolved by acting president

Thursday, March 18, 2010

Nigeria’s acting president, Goodluck Jonathan, has announced the dissolution of the country’s cabinet.

In a statement after a cabinet meeting, Nigeria’s information minister, Dora Akunyili, said that “the acting president of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, Goodluck Jonathan, dissolved the Federal Executive Council [cabinet].” In the same statement, Akunyili said that Jonathan had provided no reason for the move, although analysts said that it was due to the impediment of the cabinet to Jonathan’s efforts to put his own mark on the office.

According to Akunyili, the move would not lead to a power vacuum, as the permanent secretaries will step up to take the positions vacated. Jonathan had taken over the role of acting president in February after President Umaru Yar’Adua temporarily stepped down due to sickness, and the cabinet had been entirely appointed by Yar’Adua.

In Akunyili’s statement, she said that an official statement from Jonathan as to the future of the cabinet would be released soon. Additionally, at some time in the future, Jonathan will submit to the National Assembly a list of his submissions for the next incarnation of the cabinet.

In a statement released from the president’s office, a spokesman said that it was “the prerogative of the president to change the cabinet whenever he feels the need to inject new blood, reinvigorate the cabinet and give it a new focus.” According to another, unnamed, government official, the cabinet had become paralyzed by infighting, impeding attempts of governance on major issues.

Yar’Adua has recently returned to Nigeria after being treated for a heart ailment in Saudi Arabia, but has made no public appearances. As a reflection of his impaired condition, Nigeria’s election next year has been brought forward three months, and the ruling People’s Democratic Party, of which both Yar’Adua and Jonathan belong to, has announced that its candidate in those elections will be a Muslim, preventing Jonathan, a Christian, from running. The decision follows a tradition of alternating between Muslim and Christian candidates, allowing each two four-year terms.

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11 April

Ways To Increase The Fire Safety Of Your Business Premises

byAlma Abell

Although it is rare that your business will suffer from a fire accident, they do still occur and would be much more frequent were it not for the measures taken by people to increase the level of fire safety in London. There are countless ways in which a fire can break out in a building, so it is vitally important that every business has a method of quickly detecting the outbreak of a fire to ensure it cannot spread and cause significant damage. On top of this, it is important that many preventative measures are taken to ensure that all high-risk appliances and machinery within a building are in a safe condition and not at risk of causing a fire. Failing to maintain an exceptionally high level of fire safety in your building puts your livelihood and the personal safety of everyone inside at risk, so it undoubtedly pays off to do everything you can to achieve this level of safety. One of the greatest ways to secure your property from fire is to seek professional advice on it – continue reading below to learn more about how professionals can give you invaluable advice and equipment that helps to protect your property from fire.

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Professionals can implement a comprehensive fire safety plan

It is feasible for a business owner to implement a plan for fire safety in London on their own, such as equipping smoke alarms within their building. Although this can increase fire safety, it does not offer the comprehensive cover that a professional safety plan can offer you. There are many companies out there that work on behalf of businesses to come up with a personalised fire safety system that takes into account the various factors of an environment.

Adhere to some common sense rules

It undoubtedly pays off to have a professional fire safety plan in operation at your premises – but for your part, you must also make sure that you stick to very basic rules and practices to ensure a fire doesn’t break out. This includes making sure no naked flames are left on for too long, keeping water away from electrical appliances and not leaving any flammable materials around the workplace unsupervised.

Fire safety is something that every business must take very seriously – are experts at providing fire safety in London for all client.

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10 April

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9 April